Bamboo Farming USA
 

How do you Plant Acres of Bamboo?

 

How to Secure Plants

 

If you have acreage:
  • Buy nursery plants. 
    • Generally you will need to have the nursery contract grow for you.
       A large pot say 7 gallon and up is better than a small pot. The plants should be well established in the pot.
  • Find a grove of bamboo, dig it up and relocate it.
    • You should harden the bamboos in light shade with sufficient watering for a few months.
  • Find a grove; cut it to the ground. After it has regrown with smaller shorter plants. Dig the regrowth.
  • Buy tissue culture plants; grow them to sustainable size in pots. Plant them in the field.
    • (I have no information as to whether this is successful at farm scale.)
 

If you do not have acreage:
Find existing groves. Buy them or lease them from the land owner. Manage them on their original site.
Remove dead canes, leaning canes, canes that are too small. Kill weeds. Rent a powerful chipper to get rid of the poles. Spread the bamboo chips back onto the grove.

 

You may find after removing the obvious canes that the grove is still too thick with poles. You will need to cut out good poles.
Look for two or three poles crowded together. Note the best one. Leave it standing. Cut out two that are close to it. You can sell these good poles or chip them like the previous ones.

 

 

After you have finished thinning the grove, it will be open enough to see through and walk through easily. The following year, you may open it even more. The first year, you may be conservative about thinning.

 

The renovated grove will produce new shoots the following spring. Harvest some; leave some to grow up. Mark the year of shooting on the shoots that you allow to grow up. These poles will be sellable two or three years later.

 

The photo shows a thinned grove mulched with wheat straw. Some of the thinned poles are lying in the background. 

 

 
You Planted Bamboo...
For a new planting of bamboo, you must plan for irrigation! At least for the first two years. The more you irrigate, the faster the bamboo establishes. Apply at least an inch a week during the growing season - when deciduous trees have leaves. Moso in particular thrives on summer water. It does not like saturated soil in winter. Fewer plants and more irrigation is a better way to allocate finances than more plants and reliance on rain. New plants need daily watering; twice a day is better if the weather is hot. After three weeks, watering schedule can cut back to once or several times a week.
 
Bamboo needs good drainage as well as ample water, especially moso. Most varieties do not grow well in cold wet soils.
 
Mulch the new plants carefully. On the rootball itself, put light mulch. Don’t suffocate the roots. Outside the rootball make a thick layer several feet wider than the rootball. Between rows or well beyond the new plants you can grow a crop or plant a cover crop. One of my friends planted his plants in the very light shade of pine trees that were part of his pasture for miniature horses. He fenced the young plants individually to prevent the horses from eating them. In time he will have pasture with islands of mixed timber bamboo and pines. He will be able to cut poles and let the horses eat the leaves.
 

During the first year, you can drip irrigate just the pot (rootball) of the plant and the immediate surrounding soil. The second year, your sprinkler head should cover at least a 10 foot circle. Don't irrigate the alleys between the rows of bamboo unless you have an interim crop growing there or a cover crop.
 
When your bamboos close canopy, you will need a method of irrigation that wets the entire acreage. If you have planted the bamboos close together like 10 foot on center, canopy will close in two years. If you plant them further apart like 20 or 60 feet, canopy will close in four to 6 years.

 

Bamboo is a grass. Grass grows faster and has greener leaves when amply fertilized. If you decide to fertilize newly planted plants, fertilize the root ball. Do not fly an airplane over the acreage and fertilize the weeds and grasses between the rows. Pamper your young bamboos by keeping them weed free, well watered, and having rich green leaves.
 
In Seattle, when I had a retail bamboo nursery I bought plants from growers. Often the plants had sickly yellow leaves. The pots had run out of fertilizer. I sprayed them with foliar fertilizer. They would respond to a greener color in half an hour. If they did not respond, I sprayed them again. And they turned green. I felt like they talked to me. If your bamboos are pale green or have yellow in the leaves, it may mean only that they need water. However, it may mean it is time to spray their leaves with liquid fertilizer.
 
I believe that the soil must be mulched. Use wood chips or straw or hay or cardboard or …. Mulch protects the soil from the impact of rain drops. It moderates soil temperatures. It slows the growth of weeds. More importantly it allows the soil organisms to break down the mulch and improve the fertility and tilth of the soil. Too thick a mulch can lead to rot around the base of the culms.
 
In my research farm in Hawkinsville, Georgia, I spread straw in round bales between rows. I believe that the straw improved the quality of the soil. The bamboo spreads well under straw.

how to plant bamboo

 


Sometimes you can relocate an existing grove.

In this photo, divots have been cut in the bamboo grove. The bobcat can then lift the root ball and canes right out of the ground. Bamboo has shallow roots. Its rhizomes interlock like turf grass. A newly relocated bamboo like this needs lots of water for the first month or so after digging.


Greg White Hunt posted this and the folioing photos and on Facebook. He wrote: "Bobcat moving  P.nigra bory grove. How do you move an entire grove? One bite at a time w/ plenty of water before and after." 


Use Trencher to cut divots

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cut divots that fit into the bucket of the bobcat.

Transplanted, not yet staked.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Full size bamboos move well but require a lot of staking to remain upright. Staking must be designed to
allow tops to move freely while root balls are stationary.

 
 

Divots loaded on Flatbed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
I recommend that a tarp be placed on the flatbed. Once the divots are loaded onto the tarp on top of the flatbed, wrap the tarp around the root balls to prevent the roots from drying out. Wrap shade cloth around all leaves to prevent desiccation. Branches will fold upwards towards top of pole to make a thin "rooster tail".

In a landscape situation, this kind of move is practical because of being able to create an instant grove. Nurserymen usually move a grove like this into a shady area where they are watered and overhead sprinkled several times a day. The plants stay for a month or two to harden off and recover from the move. They then are moved into the sun for further hardening off before being sold into a landscape.

Bamboos need to be planted at the same depth as before they were dug.Do not put dirt on top of the rootballs/divots. Workers tend to attempt prevent the plants from blow-over by burying the rootball. This kills the bamboo. Bamboos dug out of a grove need serious, well designed staking, daily misting and twice daily watering. Not practical on a large scale.

If you move a whole grove, consider either 1. cutting the tops off while leaving plenty of branches and leaves or 2. cutting off every other branch to reduce the ease of the plant blowing over. Stake carefully so the rootball can not move. 

 

HOW TO LAY OUT THE PLANTINGS

To plant an orchard of trees, you set each tree out at a specific location. You can plant bamboo this way. For example, you can plant the bamboos 15 feet on center and fill the acreage.

I think a better way is to work with the fact that bamboo spreads. First year plantings will spread out from the rootball at least 5 feet in each direction, given good water, good mulch and good sunshine. Second year plantings may spread 10 foot starting from the outside of the 5 foot spread. If you run rows of bamboo that extend to the ends of the fields, you will have bamboo growing past the boundary the following year.

I planted my farm in rows extending close to the edge of the beds. This was a mistake. The year after planting, I had bamboos growing outside of my plots. Now my bamboo nursery friends need to come remove these plants and pot them up. Or I have to dig them myself and sell them. Or cut them down and take them to my friends with livestock.

My irrigation lines surround the 100 by 130 foot research plots. Sprinkler heads spray water into the plot. When we root (rhizome) prune this fall, I want to be sure that the ditch witch stays close to the perimeter and does not cut the pvc water lines. If I had planted according to the below drawing, I would have planted fewer bamboos (less cost). I would have delayed root pruning for a few years (less cost).

The Planting Plan below, saves you from the root pruning for a few years. It allows you to plant fewer plants. It allows you to use the unused land for different crops.

   

 


A THIRD WAY


Use the regrowth

 
This grove was dug for large plants for a landscape job. The holes show where plants were removed. The rhizomes that remain in the ground between the holes will send up small canes the following spring. All of these can be dug and planted in the field. They will be well rooted. The leaves will be used to full sun. They won't be blown over and will not need staking.
 
In other words, a practical way to relocate an existing grove is to cut it down. Sell the poles if possible. Feed the tops to livestock or shred it for mulch.The following spring when new shoots have opened their leaves, dig the grove entirely. No staking will be required.
 
Fill the holes. They are a hazard for livestock and humans.
 
  
 

 

 

 

Dig Large Rootballs

These bamboos had their tops cut off in spring. The plan was to dig them right away and relocate them. It did not happen until three months later after the stumps had turned brown and shooting season was over. They did not look like they would grow.
 
 
I cut the tops cut off these bamboos in spring. I did that to make it easy for the diggers to dig the bamboos I wanted. I assumed they would dig them right away and take them to my farm. It did not happen until three months later after the stumps had turned brown and shooting season was over. They did not look like they would grow.
 
It seemed doubtful that they would throw any shoots. At this time, August 2015 two thirds had sent up shoots. Perhaps they all will. The variety is Phyllostachys viridis Houzeau. I am enlarging the rectangle this fall to be sure there is room for rhizomes to spread.